Article 2 and Article 20 offer opportunities to limit backstops. Article 2, paragraph 2 of the protocol states that this is a temporary measure, while the United Kingdom identifies and develops a technology satisfactory to both parties, which carries out customs, excise, plant health and other border controls between the UK and the EU without apparent border infrastructure. The provisions must be in line with Section 10 of the European Union Withdrawal Act (Withdrawal Act) 2018 on the continuation of North-South cooperation and the prevention of new border agreements. The backstop was one of the main reasons why May`s agreement with the EU was dismantled in Parliament on 15 January. EU and UK negotiators have agreed to include a new text in the draft withdrawal agreement that binds the parties to the backstop agreement. On 13 November 2018, a modest speech was presented in the House of Commons calling for the release of legal advice given to the government on the proposed EU withdrawal agreement. The government`s response was presented to Parliament on December 3 by Attorney General Geoffrey Cox. However, the next day it was considered incomplete by MPs, which resulted in a vote in which, for the first time in history, the UK government failed to respect Parliament.  On 14 November 2018, after a five-hour cabinet meeting, Prime Minister May announced that his cabinet had approved a draft withdrawal agreement with the EU.    On the same day, the Government issued an opinion on the agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and stated that negotiations on future relations between the United Kingdom and the EU were under way and that the (binding) withdrawal agreement would not be signed without a (non-binding) political declaration on future relations. , “on the basis that nothing is agreed until everything is agreed.”  As members of the EU, both the United Kingdom and Ireland are part of the so-called internal market and customs union.
Negotiations between civil servants resulted in a draft agreement that was to be finalised at a meeting between Jean-Claude Juncker and Theresa May on 4 December 2017 in Brussels. There has been progress in financial settlement and civil rights, but the meeting was interrupted after the Northern Ireland Democratic Unionist Party opposed agreements for the Irish border.  And if the two sides could not agree on an agreement that would keep the border as open as it is today, that is where the backstop would come in. May has called for “alternative regulations” to avoid a hard border without the backstop, and pro-Brexit supporters insist that technology can allow virtual controls without physical infrastructure at the border. The EU rejected the proposed alternatives and said they had not been tested and should be dealt with during the transition. The version of the withdrawal agreement, signed in May, extended the backstop to the whole of the United Kingdom, at the request of trade unionists in Northern Ireland, who want to avoid the possibility of a virtual border between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom. Prime Minister Leo Varadkar said Johnson`s recent Brexit proposals do not fully meet the agreed goals of the backstop.