In recent years, funding for participation in joint technical processes and support for stock and fisheries assessment has become increasingly problematic. The lack of full participation in technical committees has hampered the ability to move forward in understanding and addressing issues of concern. Participants said that many programs that provide the data needed to assess stocks and fisheries had been severely reduced or even eliminated. As a result, these observers argued that the basis for science-based management would be eroded at a time when the demands for increasing accuracy in salmon management were increasing. As they go through the fishery, regulated by many jurisdictions in the United States and Canada, Chinook salmon has been at the centre of concern and controversy. Although some Chinook populations were relatively healthy, other Chinook salmon populations had declined so much that they were classified as threatened or threatened under the U.S. Minor Species Act. In addition to harvesting, many factors have contributed to the decline in these stocks, including habitat destruction, water diversion, hydroelectric power plants, ocean and climate change. The parties felt that the conservation-based fishing regimes established by the 1999 agreement would help to ensure the effectiveness of public and private investments in habitat restoration and other aspects of salmon recovery. The agreements and institutions established in 1985 proved effective in the early years of the treaty, but became obsolete after 1992, when the original fishing regime ended. From 1992 to 1998, Canada and the United States failed to agree on extensive coastal fishing regimes. In 1999, negotiations between governments resulted in the successful renewal of long-term fishing regimes under the Pacific Treaty. There has been a historic agreement in the Faroe Islands since 1991 and its salmon fishery has been concluded since then.
Despite the TSP`s joint commitment to preserve and protect common salmon stocks, the United States and Canada spent many years in a diplomatic stalemate and the health of salmon stocks suffered.35 After initial differences on the equitable sharing of mixed stocks in the early 1990s, a number of mechanisms were put in place to address this problem. In 1993 and 1994, Canada and the United States appointed new negotiators to address the performance equivalent principle. In 1995, negotiations between the government and the government were unsuccessful, and New Zealand Ambassador Christopher Beebe was appointed to lead a mediation of the principle of pst justice (benefit equivalent). When this failed, the parties created two stakeholder groups, made up of fishermen from both countries, to resolve the controversy. While negotiations among stakeholders have made considerable progress, this process has finally failed.36 An agreement reached in 1937 between the United States and Canada to conserve and share the Fraser River Sockeye salmon crop fairly was an early success in managing the common salmon stocks. The Fraser River is entirely located in Canada, but sockeye salmon usually pass through U.S. waters when they return to spawning. For example, Fraser River Sockeye supported large fisheries in both the United States and Canada, setting the scene for an international drama.